# Isotropic linearized elasticity brick¶

This brick represents a term

$-div(\sigma) = \ldots$

with

$\begin{split}\sigma &= \lambda\mbox{tr}(\varepsilon(u))I + 2\mu\varepsilon(u) \\ \varepsilon(u) &= (\nabla u + \nabla u^T)/2\end{split}$

$$\varepsilon(u)$$ is the small strain tensor, $$\sigma$$ is the stress tensor, $$\lambda$$ and $$\mu$$ are the Lamé coefficients. This represents the system of linearized isotropic elasticity. It can also be used with $$\lambda=0$$ together with the linear incompressible brick to build the Stokes problem.

Let us recall that the relation between the Lamé coefficients an Young modulus $$E$$ and Poisson ratio $$\nu$$ is

$\lambda = \dfrac{E\nu}{(1+\nu)(1-2\nu)}, ~~~ \mu = \dfrac{E}{2(1+\nu)},$

except for the plane stress approximation (2D model) where

$\lambda^* = \dfrac{E\nu}{(1-\nu^2)}, ~~~ \mu = \dfrac{E}{2(1+\nu)},$

The function which adds this brick to a model and parametrized with the Lamé coefficients is:

ind_brick = getfem::add_isotropic_linearized_elasticity_brick
(md, mim, varname, data_lambda, data_mu,
region = size_type(-1));


where dataname_lambda and dataname_mu are the data of the model representing the Lamé coefficients.

The function which adds this brick to a model and parametrized with Young modulus and Poisson ratio is:

ind_brick = getfem::add_isotropic_linearized_elasticity_pstrain_brick
(md, mim, varname, data_E, data_nu, region = size_type(-1));


This brick represent a plane strain approximation when it is applied to a 2D mesh (and a standard model on a 3D mesh). In order to obtain a plane stress approximation for 2D meshes, one can use:

ind_brick = getfem::add_isotropic_linearized_elasticity_pstress_brick
(md, mim, varname, data_E, data_nu, region = size_type(-1));


For 3D meshes, the two previous bricks give the same result.

The function:

getfem::compute_isotropic_linearized_Von_Mises_or_Tresca
(md, varname, dataname_lambda, dataname_mu, mf_vm, VM, tresca_flag = false);


compute the Von Mises criterion (or Tresca if tresca_flag is set to true) on the displacement field stored in varname. The stress is evaluated on the mesh_fem mf_vm and stored in the vector VM. It is not valid for 2D plane stress approximation and is parametrized with Lamé coefficients. The functions:

getfem::compute_isotropic_linearized_Von_Mises
(md, varname, data_E, data_nu, mf_vm, VM);

getfem::compute_isotropic_linearized_Von_Mises
(md, varname, data_E, data_nu, mf_vm, VM);


compute the Von Mises stress, parametrized with Young modulus and Poisson ratio, the second one being valid for 2D plane stress approximation when it is applied on a 2D mesh (the two functions give the same result for 3D problems).

The program tests/elastostatic.cc can be taken as a model of use of a linearized isotropic elasticity brick.

# Linear incompressibility (or nearly incompressibility) brick¶

This brick adds a linear incompressibility condition (or a nearly incompressible condition) in a problem of type:

$\mbox{div}(u) = 0,\quad (\mbox{ or } \mbox{div}(u) = \varepsilon p)$

This constraint is enforced with Lagrange multipliers representing the pressure, introduced in a mixed formulation.

The function adding this incompressibility condition is:

ind_brick = getfem::add_linear_incompressibility
(md, mim, varname, multname_pressure, region = size_type(-1),
dataexpr_penal_coeff = std::string());


where varname is the variable on which the incompressibility condition is prescribed, multname_pressure is a variable which should be described on a scalar fem representing the multiplier (the pressure) and dataexpr_penal_coeff is an optional penalization coefficient for the nearly incompressible condition.

In nearly incompressible homogeneous linearized elasticity, one has $$\varepsilon = 1 / \lambda$$ where $$\lambda$$ is one of the Lamé coefficient and $$\varepsilon$$ the penalization coefficient.

For instance, the following program defines a Stokes problem with a source term and an homogeneous Dirichlet condition on boundary 0. mf_u, mf_data and mf_p have to be valid finite element description on the same mesh. mim should be a valid integration method on the same mesh:

typedef std::vector<getfem::scalar_type> plain_vector;

getfem::model Stokes_model;

getfem::scalar_type mu = 1.0;

"u", "lambda", "mu");

plain_vector F(mf_data.nb_dof()*N);
for (int i = 0; i < mf_data.nb_dof()*N; ++i) F(i) = ...;

An example for a nearly incompressibility condition can be found in the program tests/elastostatic.cc.